A Short Guide to Colored Gemstones

AmberAmber is fossilized tree resin. While it is usually a dark yellowish-orange, it can also be found in other colors such as blue green or black. Amber is one of the only stones for which inclusions increase the value. Real amber floats while fakes will sink. Amber scratches easily.
AmethystAmethyst is a purple quartz, and an individual stone is more valuable the redder and more even the color is. Don't leave the stone in sunlight for long as it can cause the color to fade.
AquamarineAquamarine is a blue beryl. The bluer the stone, the more valuable it will be. It is a very durable stone.
EmeraldEmerald is a green beryl. A deep green is the most valuable color of emerald. Emeralds are very fragile, as they easily chip or crack, they are sensitive to heat, and can lose color in sunlight.
GarnetGarnets are gemstones that can be found in many colors. Red and brown are the most common, and blue are the rarest. Garnets are very durable.
JadeJade is a green stone that mostly comes from Asia. It is most valuable if it is semi-transparent and free of inclusions. It is extremely durable.
PearlPearl are stones produced in the mantle of an oyster. Natural pearls are extremely rare and are the most valuable. Cultured pearls are the most common and are come from oysters in pearl farms. Irregularly shaped pearls are less valuable than spherical pearls. Pearls scratch rather easily.
RubyRubies are bright red corundum stones. The most valuable rubies are blood-red. They are extremely durable.
SapphireSapphires are corundum stones that are any color besides red. The most valuable sapphires are orange. Sapphires are extremely durable.
TourmalineTourmaline is a stone that comes in many colors. The most common tourmaline color is emerald green. The most valuable color is red with a hint of purple. They are very durable stones.
TurquoiseTurquoise is a blueish green opaque stone. The most valuable turquoise is sky blue. They scratch easily and the color is affected by heat and chemicals.